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The Totonaca people of Mexico were probably the first people to domesticate vanilla for the perfume and tea. In 15th century, Aztec conquered the Totonaca and called it tlilxochitl, or "black flower". Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés introduced vanilla to Europe in the 1520s. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Reunion and Mauritius. Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia. They called it vainilla, or "little pod". Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla until Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand. Vanilla is expensive as it is very labor-eating agricultural crop. The United States is the world’s largest consumer of vanilla, followed by Europe – especially France. Between 1400 and 2300 tons of dried vanilla is produced worldwide each year.